Some bodybuilders and athletes use trenbolone for its muscle-building and otherwise performance-enhancing effects. [ citation needed ] Such use is illegal in the United States and many other countries. The DEA classifies trenbolone as a Schedule III controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act .  Trenbolone is classified as a Schedule 4 drug in Canada  and a class C drug with no penalty for personal use or possession in the United Kingdom .  Use or possession of steroids without a prescription is a crime in Australia .  The infamous "duchess" cocktail administered to Russian athletes at the Sochi Winter Olympics consisted of oxandrolone , metenolone , and trenbolone. 
Short-term side effects include insomnia, high blood pressure, night sweats, increased aggression and libido. However, since women will suffer virilization effects even at small doses, this drug should not be taken by a female. Kidney toxicity has been suggested, but has not yet been proven, and scientific evidence supporting the idea is absent from the bodybuilding community that perpetuates this idea. The origin of this myth most likely has to do with the rust colored oxidized metabolites of trenbolone which are excreted in urine and often mistaken for blood. Trenbolone and 17epi-trenbolone are both excreted in urine as conjugates that can be hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase. This implies that trenbolone leaves the body as beta-glucuronides or sulfates.
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