Testosterone wiki

The second theory is similar and is known as "evolutionary neuroandrogenic (ENA) theory of male aggression". [77] [78] Testosterone and other androgens have evolved to masculinize a brain in order to be competitive even to the point of risking harm to the person and others. By doing so, individuals with masculinized brains as a result of pre-natal and adult life testosterone and androgens enhance their resource acquiring abilities in order to survive, attract and copulate with mates as much as possible. [77] The masculinization of the brain is not just mediated by testosterone levels at the adult stage, but also testosterone exposure in the womb as a fetus. Higher pre-natal testosterone indicated by a low digit ratio as well as adult testosterone levels increased risk of fouls or aggression among male players in a soccer game. [79] Studies have also found higher pre-natal testosterone or lower digit ratio to be correlated with higher aggression in males. [80] [81] [82] [83] [84]

Testosterone is significantly correlated with aggression and competitive behaviour and is directly facilitated by the latter. There are two theories on the role of testosterone in aggression and competition. [148] The first one is the Challenge hypothesis which states that testosterone would increase during puberty thus facilitating reproductive and competitive behaviour which would include aggression. [148] Thus it is the challenge of competition among males of the species that facilitates aggression and violence. [148] Studies conducted have found direct correlation between testosterone and dominance especially among the most violent criminals in prison who had the highest testosterone levels. [148] The same research also found fathers (those outside competitive environments) had the lowest testosterone levels compared to other males. [148]

Intramuscular testosterone preparations have been the mainstay of testosterone replacement therapy since the 1950s, and they are one of the most popular forms of testosterone for TRT. Only recently has the usage of testosterone gels (like Androgel and Axiron) surpassed injectable testosterone usage for TRT. As of 2014, approximately 60% of TRT users use testosterone gels, while 35% use injectable testosterone preparations (According to Endo Pharmaceuticals FDA filing for Aveed). With this being said, the surge in testosterone gel usage may largely be attributed to the advertising by the pharmaceutical companies promoting these gels.

Testosterone wiki

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